Q1. What is community tackle?
Reply: We can perspective community and host addresses in two ways:
1) Community-ID and Host-ID
An IP deal with is created of two pieces, the left section is community ID, the ideal portion is host ID.
For case in point, in 188.8.131.52, if 100 is a community ID, then 3.4.5 is a host ID. If 100.3 is network ID, then 4.5 is a host ID.
2) Network-handle and host-address. Let’s appear at two examples:
IP-tackle Network-ID Host-ID Community-deal with Host-address Mask
184.108.40.206/8 100 4.5.6 100… 220.127.116.11 /8
18.104.22.168/16 150.1 2.3 150.1.. 22.214.171.124 /16
Note: Network mask is introduced as /m where by m is a 2-digit decimal amount concerning 8~31.
Observe: IP, network, and host addresses are normally offered with masks.
Q2. What is mask?
Remedy. IP takes advantage of network mask to split up a 32-bit IP-tackle into network-ID and host-ID. Network-tackle is designed of community-ID bits on the still left and bits on the right.
For instance, for 126.96.36.199/16, 16 is the network mask, 150.1 is network-ID, 150.1../16 is network-handle, 2.3 is host-ID, 188.8.131.52/16 is host-tackle. Network-deal with is utilised by routers to forward packets. Host deal with is made use of to distinguish hosts in the exact community.
Q3. Why community addresses?
Remedy: When numbers are as well many, we use hierarchical composition to regulate them. For instance, telephone quantity are structured as.
For case in point, 086.021.1234.5678 is a variety in China, Shanghais. The voice concept is switched by country code, city code, and prefix. Structured cell phone figures are considerably much easier to switch than flat 10-digit cell phone numbers.
World wide web faces a equivalent predicament. There are nearly 4.2 billion addresses (IP has 32 bits. or 2^32 person addresses.) Routers use routing tables to foreword packets. Naturally, it truly is significantly less difficult for router to take care of structured addresses than 4 billion flat kinds.
IP’s resolution is to use community-addresses to forward packets, not unique types. Network mask breaks an handle into a network-ID and a host-ID. Routing tables use network addresses, not IP addresses.
For case in point,
– 100…/8 community has 16,777,216 addresses. In a routing desk, (100…/8, following hop interface) states: ahead packets with the similar spot community to the exact same subsequent hop interface.
– 150.1../16 network has 65,536 addresses. In a routing table, (150.1../16, up coming hop interface) takes treatment of forwarding 65,536 particular person addresses in 150.1../16 network.
– 150.1../16 community has 65,536 IP addresses. In a routing table, (150.1../16, future hop interface) normally takes treatment of forwarding 65,536 person tackle in 150.1../16 community.
– 222.111.44./24 has 256 IP addresses. In a routing desk, (222.111.44./24, upcoming hop interface) forwards 256 IP addresses in 222.111.44. community to the upcoming hop interface.
Q4. How existing mask in decimal?
Respond to. Existing mask the same way as IP address. For instance.
/8 is introduced as 255….
/16 is offered as 255.255…
/24 is offered as 255.255.255.
Q5. Why mask size is multiple of 8 but?
Solution: There are two variety of IP addressing strategies: classful and classless. What we’ve talked so much is classful. Classless IP address can use mask of any length. See upcoming tutorials for specifics.
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